Monthly Archives: 十二月 2010

small acts of resistance


爲什麽要寫這樣的日誌呢?這個標題是一本書的名字,是我大學最喜歡的老師推薦給我的書。買這本書的背景是劉曉波獲得諾貝爾和平獎。買這本書的原因是 想為他的獲獎紀念一下。寫這篇日誌的原因是看到太多不公平太多冷漠和麻木,希望短小的故事可以給大家啓發,共勉。“幾流的人民配幾流的政府” (龍應台) 這樣的話並不是為政府開脫,而是喚醒大家作爲公民的意識,意識到作爲個人的力量。”An aim of dictatorship is to make you feel isolated.”下面的一個故事發生在波蘭…[]裏面的是本人拙翻譯,請高手見諒並且指教!

Strollers Defeat Tanks

The rise of Solidarity, a popular movement created in August 1980 by striking workers in the shipyards of Gdansk and across Poland, caused panic in the regime that had ruled the country since the WWII. On December 13, 1981, the Communist authorities put tanks on the streets to stop Solidarity once and for all. Hundreds were arrested; dozens were killed.[二戰以後,共產黨統治波蘭,一個由罷工工人發起的民運,Solidarity被共產黨打壓,他們當中很多人被逮捕,一些人被殺害。]

Despite the tanks and arrests, Poles organized protests against the ban on Solidarity, including a boycott of the fiction-filled television news (評論:這個詞也可以評價我們的新聞聯播). But a boycott of the TV news could not by itself embarrass the government. After all, who could tell how many were obeying the boycott call? [在坦克和逮捕令的威脅之下,Solidarity的抗議並沒有停止。Solidarity的人們呼籲大家杯葛打壓民運的被政府控制的新聞媒體。但是又有 誰能夠保證大家的確沒有看這些有消息但是沒有事實的新聞呢?]

In one small town, they found a way. Every evening, beginning on February 5, 1982, the inhabitants of Swidnik in eastern Poland went on a walkabout. As the half-hour evening news began, the streets would fill with Swidnikians, who chatted, walked, and loafed. Before going out, some placed their switched-off television set in the window, facing uselessly onto the street. Others went a step further. They placed their disconnected set in a stroller or a builder’s wheelbarrow, and too the television itself for a nightly outing. [在一個叫做Swidnik的小城鎮,大家找到了一個方法來有效的與政府的媒體抗爭。每天晚上新聞要播放的時候,住在那裏的人們就紛紛走上街頭,聊天,散 步。在他們出來散步之前,他們把關上的電視放在窗戶前以表示對於那些新聞的無聲的抗議。更有甚者,他們把電視放在搖籃車裏面或者獨輪車裏面,每到夜間新聞 的時候他們就推著小車散步]

“If resistance is done by underground activities, it’s not you or me,” on Solidarity supporter later noted. “But if you see your neighbors taking their TV for a walk, it makes you feel part of something. An aim of dictatorship is to make you feel isolated. Swidnik broke the isolation and built confidence.” [“如果反抗只是限於地下運動,這根本就不関我們的什麽事情。”一個Solidarity成員這樣說,”但是如果你看到你的鄰居拿這個電視出來散步,你就 可以實實在在的感受到反抗。獨裁的目的是讓你覺得很孤立,Swidnik人打破了這种鼓勵,並且建立了信心。”]

The TV-goes-for-a-walk tactics, which spread to other towns and cities, infuriated the government. But the authorities felt powerless to retaliate. Going for a walk was not, after all, an official crime under the criminal code.[這個”帶著電視去散步“的招數傳到了其它的城市,政府很不爽,但是政府不能做什麽去報復。因爲散步本身並不是罪。]

Eventually, the curfew was brought forward from 10 p.m to 7 p.m, thus forcing Swidnikians to stay at home during the 7:30 news, or risk being arrested or shot. [最終,政府採取宵禁,並且把宵禁的時間提前到晚上7點鈡,Swidnikians必須要在新聞之間留在家裏,否則就會被逮捕或者擊斃。]

The citizens of Swidnik responded by going for a walk during the earlier edition of the news at 5 p.m instead.[人們有什麽反應呢?他們也把出來散步的時間提前到5點鐘,這樣他們就可以不用看5點時段的新聞了。]

Just as it was difficult to be sure that Poles were not watching the television news, it was hard to know ho many people were listening to programs that criticized the government. Solidarity found a way around that problem, too. [正如很難擔保波蘭人真的不看電視新聞一樣,想要知道有多少人正在聼批評政府的廣播也一樣困難。Solidarity找到了一個方法。]

Radio Solidarity broadcast illegal news bulletins that countered official propaganda. But nobody could be sure how many people were listening to those underground reports. Opinion polls were, under the circumstances, unthinkable. So the Solidarity broadcasters devised an experiment. They asked people to switch the lights on and off in their apartment at a certain point in the program. [Solidarity的方法是做一個實驗,他們讓收聽廣播的人們在某一個具體的時間短不斷的開關屋子裏面的電燈。]

There was an obvious risk. If you were the only one on your block with your lights blinking, that would advertise to police officers in the vicinity: “Look, a lawbreaker lives here.” [這個實驗的風險就是,如果你住的那片區域裏面只有你一個人的家裏電燈一閃一閃的,這就相當於對周圍的警察說,我這個”違法亂紀”的人住在這裡呢!]

Dissident Konstanty Gebert was walking down a street in the Polish capital, Warsaw, during the broadcast. As he walked, he noticed the lights in a ground-floor apartment starting to flash on and off. As he stepped back, he realized that the whole building was flashing. He turned to look behind him and saw block after block lit up like Christmas trees, all the way down the street. Reports that night said that buildings flashed on and off throughout the city. Gebert said: “You can’t imagine the feeling of elation.” [在廣播還在播的時候,一位持異見者Konstanty Gebert在波蘭首都,華沙,行走。他注意到有一件房子的燈在閃爍,儅他走回去,他意識到整個建築都在一閃一閃。他繼續看,發現後面的樓像一棵聖誕樹一 樣在閃爍。那天新聞說,整個華沙的建築都閃閃發光。Gebert說,這種歡欣鼓舞的心情無法形容。]

As for the authorities: short of arresting all the inhabitants of Warsaw, there was little they could do.[政府該怎麽辦呢?他們能把整個華沙的人都抓起來嗎?]

Even on the most solemn occasions, Solidarity supporters found ways of undermining Poland’s detested rulers. In 1984, Soviet leader Yuri Andropov died. Scheduled programming was interrupted for live coverage of the funeral, including a speech by Andropov’s aged successor, Konstantin Chernenko, speaking from the top of Lenin’s mausoleum on Red Square in Moscow. The official broadcast was soon interrupted, as seen in Grzegorz Linkowski’s 2006 documentary Stroll with the Television News. Instead of Chernenko’s loyal mumblings (“Yuri Andropov, a glorious son of the Communist Party, has departed this life…”), Polish viewers suddenly heard a different announcer break in: “Here is the TV version of Radio Solidarity. Good evening, ladies and gentlemen…” whereupon a list of arrested activists and a series of opposition demands followed. [即使是在很严肃的时候,Solidarity的支持者也可以找到办法作抗争。1984年前苏联主席Yuri Andropov去世,在波兰,人们要看他的葬礼的现场直播,包括Andropov的继承人,KC在红场的讲话。正在KC讲,Yuri Andropov党的光荣的好儿子云云的时候,波兰的观众突然听到一个不同的声音:“现在是Radio Solidarity的电视版本,大家晚上好…”在这个节目里面公布了被逮捕的激进分子的名单…]

Polish viewers were delighted. The authorities were not. The secret police couldn’t identify the culprits. The embarrassment for the government-and the delight of everybody else-remained. The TV-filled strollers, the flashing lights, and the interrupted funeral kept the flame of Polish hope alive-with dramatic implications in the years to come. The immovable regime crumbled within just a few years. [波兰人非常高兴,但是政府就没有那么高兴了。秘密警察不能抓到罪魁祸首。所以政府的尴尬和人们的喜悦互相对峙。带着电视的婴儿车,一闪一闪的灯光和被扰 乱的葬礼直播给了破烂人希望,没有过多少年,波兰政权以失败告终。]

写在后面:当我们在琳琅满目的购物商店考虑是买Gucci还是LV的 时候,我们应该意识到我们的选择不仅是在经济的层面。放一篇文章说一些别人看来有的没的的言论,被别人忽略被别人攻击被别人误解有什么所谓呢?One has a choice to believe some discourse and disgard some.